Experts were confident that the vast space which we refer to as the Universe is 3D; however, this belief has now been challenged by a group of scientists. They are claiming that the Universe is just a hologram.
For those who don’t know: holograms exist in our day to day life; they are found in everything from banknotes to credit cards. Holograms are two-dimensional, but to the onlookers they appear 3D. The new study is suggesting that our Universe might be behaving in a similar manner.
According to this newly presented holographic principle, the mathematical description of our Universe needs just two dimensions, not three. This means things we feel are 3D might actually be the images of 2D processes amid the vast cosmic horizon.
To date, we have seen scientists studying holographic principle in various exotic spaces boasting negative curvature. Those are spaces where all objects thrown in a straight line eventually return. However, the team making the latest revelation suggests that this principle can be applicable even for flat space-time like the Universe. Here, it must be mentioned that this latest study was carried out by a team of researchers at the Vienna University of Technology.
One of the main authors of the study Daniel Grumiller said that he and his team have found that the Universe is quite flat and when it comes to astronomic distances, it possesses positive curvature.
For testing this hypothesis, researchers built a number of gravitational theories that don’t need exotic spaces and are based on a flat space. To explain their plan, Grumiller said that when quantum gravity on flat spaces enables holographic descriptions based on standard quantum theories, physical quantities that can be computed using both theories must be there.
For instance, the gravitational theory must comprise both of quantum enlargement and quantum mechanics. It’s impossible to describe entangled quantum particles individually. They entangle to create a single object; this happens even if they are situated far away from each other. The level of entanglement in a particular quantum system can be measured; the measurement is referred to as “entropy of entanglement”.
During this latest study, the team under Grumiller came to know that the value of entropy of entanglement remains the same on low dimension quantum field theories and in flat quantum gravity.